Sunifiram

Sunifiram

Sunifiram is a relatively new nootropic that has been getting some attention in the nootropics community over the past couple of years. Although there hasn’t been much research on it yet, preliminary studies are very promising. And users from around the world are reporting that sunifiram has a number of potent nootropic and mood-boosting properties.

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of piracetam, which is one of the oldest and best-studied nootropics. It is many, many times more potent than piracetam. Because of this, users are reporting amazing results with very small sunifiram dosages. While piracetam doses are measured in grams, sunifiram dosages are measured in single-digit milligrams. This means you have to take much less to experience nootropic effects.

Sunifiram Effects

Users of sunifiram have reported a number of positive nootropic and mood-boosting effects. Some of these sunifiram effects include:

  • sunifiram ncImproved Memory
  • Increased Focus
  • Improved Mood
  • Improved Decision Making
  • Improvement in Overall Cognitive Function
  • Increased Alertness
  • Increased Feeling of Well-Being

Sunifiram Dosage

Sunifiram is an extremely potent nootropic, so you only need a small amount to experience big effects. While there have been no human studies done to figure out the optimal sunifiram dosage, we can look at animal studies and the dozens of case reports published online to come up with an effective dosing range.

An effective sunifiram dosage for most people seems to be between 5 and 10 milligrams. At the lower end of that range, users report an increase in focus, memory, and overall cognitive function. At the higher end and beyond, users often report more of a stimulating effect in addition to all the effects felt at lower dosages.

As always, it is recommended that you start at the lower end (5mg) and work your way up as needed. And, of course, you should always consult a licensed medical professional before starting any new drugs, supplements, exercise routines, etc.

How Sunifiram Works (a bit science-heavy)

Sunifiram is known as an AMPAkine because its main mechanism of action is via the AMPA receptor. AMPA is one of the three main subsets of glutamate receptors, along with NDMA and kainate. Sunifiram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA. It activates AMPA-mediated neurotransmission.

Sunifiram has also been shown to aid in the release of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. Acetylcholine is a much-studied neurotransmitter that is known to play a role in learning, memory, decision making, and many other cognitive processes. Many nootropics are known to influence acetylcholine levels in the brain.

While sunifiram is a derivative of the racetamic nootropic piracetam, it is not technically a racetam itself. This is because sunifiram does not have the same chemical (pyrrolidone) backbone that piracetam and all the other racetams have. Sunifiram is chemically similar to other piperazine alkaloids, such as unifiram and sapunifiram.

Sunifiram Safety and Side Effects

There have not been any human studies done on the long-term safety of sunifiram. However, due to sunifiram’s structural and functional similarities to other nootropics, we can reasonably assume that it has a similar safety profile.

No serious side effects have ever been reported with sunifiram. Some users report over-stimulation, insomnia, and anxiety when using extremely high doses (>12mg). This can easily be avoided by staying within the dosing range listed above.

Two of the most common side effects seen in sunifiram and other nootropics are headaches and upset stomach. Both of these potential side effects can usually be reduced or eliminated. If you experience an upset stomach when taking sunifiram, try taking it with a small meal. This eliminates nausea and upset stomach for most users.

It is advised that you take a choline source, like Alpha-GPC, with sunifiram. Some users of sunifiram and other nootropics report getting headaches. This is thought to be caused by changes in acetylcholine levels in the brain. By taking a choline source, you ensure that you have adequate levels of acetylcholine, thus reducing the likelihood of headaches.

Taking a choline source with sunifiram and other nootropics isn’t just a good idea because it greatly reduces the likelihood of headaches, though. It has also been shown to boost the effectiveness of several nootropics. There are several case reports around the internet of users getting an increased nootropic effect from stacking sunifiram with Alpha-GPC or CDP-Choline.

Where To Buy Sunifiram

Sunifiram NCAs of right now, there aren’t many reputable places to buy sunifiram. Fortunately, however, one of our favorite online nootropic stores just started carrying it not too long ago. Of course, we’re talking about Nootropics City. They have sunifiram in capsule form.

Nootropics City is on our preferred vendors list. We’ve been ordering from them for years, and have had nothing but positive experiences with them. They have great products, an amazing selection, excellent customer service, reasonable prices, and fast shipping. Highly recommended.

Sources/Further Reading

Ghelardini, C.; Galeotti, N.; Gualtieri, F.; Romanelli, M.; Bucherelli, C.; Baldi, E.; Bartolini, A. (2002). “DM235 (sunifiram): a novel nootropic with potential as a cognitive enhancer”. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s archives of pharmacology 365 (6): 419–426.

Manetti, D.; Ghelardini, C.; Bartolini, A.; Dei, S.; Galeotti, N.; Gualtieri, F.; Romanelli, M. N.; Teodori, E. (2000). “Molecular simplification of 1,4-diazabicyclo4.3.0nonan-9-ones gives piperazine derivatives that maintain high nootropic activity”. Journal of medicinal chemistry 43 (23): 4499–4507.

Martini, E.; Norcini, M.; Ghelardini, C.; Manetti, D.; Dei, S.; Guandalini, L.; Melchiorre, M.; Pagella, S.; Scapecchi, S.; Teodoria, E. (2008). “Design, synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of new analogues of DM232 (unifiram) and DM235 (sunifiram) as cognition modulators”. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16 (23): 10034–10042.

Moriguchi, S.; Tanaka, T.; Narahashi, T.; Fukunaga, K. (2013). “Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor”.Hippocampus 23: 942–951

Moriguchi, S.; Tanaka, T.; Tagashira, H.; Narahashi, T.; Fukunaga, K. (2013). “Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice”. Behavioural Brain Research 242: 150–157.

Romanelli, M.; Galeotti, N.; Ghelardini, C.; Manetti, D.; Martini, E.; Gualtieri, F. (2006). “Pharmacological characterization of DM232 (unifiram) and DM235 (sunifiram), new potent cognition enhancers”. CNS Drug Reviews 12 (1): 39–52.

Scapecchi, S.; Martini, E.; Manetti, D.; Ghelardini, C.; Martelli, C.; Dei, S.; Galeotti, N.; Guandalini, L.; Novella Romanelli, M.; Teodori, E. (2004). “Structure-activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs”. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 12(1): 71–85.

 

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